Distance Learning






By Plimun Web Design

Armenia and Diaspora in the 20th century

Syllabus for one-year Distance Learning course on Armenian Studies




ARMENIA AND DIASPORA IN THE 20th CENTURY

 
 
Vahe Sahakyan, Instructor
Yerevan State University, Distance Learning Laboratory
Ph.D Candidate, Near Eastern Studies, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
 
 

1. Course module description 
The goal of this course module is to address the contemporary history of Armenians in the course of the twentieth century.
 
The first part of the course module will focus on the three republics of Armenia. The course module will discuss and analyze the preconditions and development of the Republic of Armenia in 1918, the internal and external struggles within and outside the first Republic considering a broader context of the dominant ideologies of nationalism and socialism. Then we will focus on the Sovietization of Armenia in 1920, on the failures and achievements in the time of the Soviet Armenia and policies of the Soviet Armenia towards the Armenian diaspora. The first part will end with the post-Soviet independent Republic of Armenia, the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the redefinitions of the policies towards the diaspora.
 
The second part of the course module will address the contemporary experience of Armenians outside Armenia, particularly in the United States. In order to grasp the entire complexity of the problems of ethnicity, identity and migration in contemporary world, the course module will analyze these categories within the framework of the studies of diaspora, transnationalism and international migration. While these fields have developed to a certain extent in parallel to each other since the 1960s and 1970s, recently the tendency among the scholars of these cognate fields to borrow theories, methodologies, concepts and categories of analysis has become a common practice.  In this part of the class will first deal with the theoretical and methodological aspects of the studies of international migration, transnationalism and diasporas, which all, in one way or another, engage with the discussions of ethnicity, identity and migration.
 
The last part of the course module will focus on Armenian experience in the United States as a diaspora. The presence of Armenians in western world, especially in Europe, is not a modern phenomenon and can be traced back to at least pre-modern, if not medieval and ancient, times. For the purposes of this class, we will focus only on the contemporary diaspora of Armenians, which has formed largely by the descendants of genocide survivors in the first half of the twentieth century and more recently by the emigration flows of Armenians form the countries of the former Soviet Union. This part will address solidarities, conflicts and processes which on the one hand keep the diasporic life vibrant, but on the other hand created huge problems in the relations with the Soviet and Post-Soviet republics, as well as within the diasporic communities.
 
2. Objectives of the course module
• To discuss and analyze the preconditions leading to the declaration of the independence of Armenia in 1918. 
• To understand the first republic and the conflicts and tensions between various Armenian political groups and parties in the context of their nationalist or socialist ideologies.
• To learn about the processes and conflicts leading to the Sovietizaiton of Armenia.
• The understand Bolshevik, Stalinist and Post-Stalinist Soviet Armenia and it’s policies towards the Armenian political parties and diaspora in general.
• To analyze the processes, conflicts and possibilities leading to the establishment of the post-Soviet, independent republic of Armenia in 1991.
• To understand the contemporary republic of Armenia, the Nagorno Karabakh conflict and the policies towards the Armenian diaspora.
• To explore theories of international migration, transnationalization and diaspora.
• To discuss different approaches to the definition of the term ‘diaspora’.
• To analyze the possibilities of the application of the theories of international migration and transnationalism in the study of diasporas.
• To understand the fluid, diverse nature of diasporas in general and that of the Armenian diaspora in particular.
• To understand the Armenian diasporic community in the US. 
• To learn about the most important Armenian institutions operating in the Armenian diaspora. 
• To analyze the achievements of the Armenian diasporic institutions in the United States.
• The understand the range of possibilities of identity formation ‘from being to feeling Armenian’ in the United States. 
 
3. Assessment
Since this is a distance-learning course, assessment will be based only on students’ written work.

Weekly assignments – 60%

Final paper - 40%
 
4. Course module program
 
PART I. 

Class 1. Liberalism, Conservatism, Nationalism and Socialism in the late 19th early 20th century Armenian political thought and the making of the Republic of Armenia
- Armenian liberation and the formation of political parties among Armenians.
- The Russian and Ottoman empires, borderlands and Armenians across the empires.
- The WWI and the preconditions of the independence of Armenia, 1914-1918. 
 
Readings:
• Libaridian, Gerard, J. Modern Armenia: People, Nation, State. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2007.
o Chapter 4. “Theory and Praxis: A Perspective on the Armenian Liberation Movement, 1890-1908,” pp. 89-101 – 12 pages.
o Chapter 5. “Rethinking the Nation: Revolution and Liberation in the 1892 and 1907 Programs of the Dashnaktsutiune,” pp. 103-112. 
o Chapter 8, “A Populist Agenda and the Alienation of the State,” pp. 144-150; “Limitations of the Nationalist Perspective,” 150-154; “A Contractual Agreement,” pp. 154-159; “War and transformation of the state,” pp. 159-161. 
• Suny, Ronald, Gregor. Looking Towards Ararat: Armenia in Modern History. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1993.
o Chapter 4. “Populism, Nationalism and Marxism among Russia’s Armenians,” pp. 63-78.
o Chapter 5. “Labor and Socialism among Armenians in Transcaucasia,” pp. 79-93.
• Suny, Ronald, Gregor. “Eastern Armenians Under Tsarist Rule” in Hovannisian R. G. (ed.) The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Vol II.  Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the Fifteenth century to the Twentieth Century. New York, St. Martin's press, 1997, pp.109-137.
• Hovannisian Richard, G. "The Armenian Question in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1914.” in Hovannisian R. G. (ed.) The Armenian People from Ancient to  Modern Times. Vol II. Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the Fifteenth century to the Twentieth Century. New York, St. Martin's press, 1997, 203-238 (read especially pp. 212-233). 
• Hovannisian Richard, G. "Armenia's Road to Independence," in Hovannisian R. G. (ed.) The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Vol II.  Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the Fifteenth century to the Twentieth Century. New York, St. Martin's press, 1997, 275-301. 
 
Recommended readings:
• Werth, Paul. 2006. "The Russian Empire and the Armenian Catholicos at Home and Abroad." in: Osamu Ieda and Tomohiko Uyama, eds., Reconstruction and Interaction of Slavic Eurasia and Its Neighboring Worlds. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, 203-235.
 
Assignment 1. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Two of the most influential Armenian revolutionary political parties have been the Social Democratic Hnchakian (or Hunchagian) Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (or the Dashnak/Tashnag). Analyze their ideological grounds and political stands since their foundations until the end of the WWI. 
• Discuss the ideology and political tenets of the Armenian Democratic-Constitutional (Ramkavar/Ramgavar-Sahmanadrakan) party. What was their role in the last years of the Ottoman Empire? 
• Describe the processes leading to the confiscation of the Armenian Church properties in the Russian Empire. Why did the imperial government eventually apply repressions against the Armenian Church? (You might need to read Paul Werth’s article, too).
• Based on your current and previous readings on WWI and the Armenian Genocide, analyze the processes in the Russian and Ottoman Empires, which led to the foundation of the Republic of Armenia. 
 
Class 2. The Rise and Fall of the First Republic: Armenia in 1918-1920
- The first Republic of Armenia.
- Governments and political parties in independent Armenia.
- Neighbors, diplomacy, external and internal conflicts in 1918-1920. 
 
Readings:
• Hovannisian Richard, G. "The Republic of Armenia," in Hovannisian R. G. (ed.) The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Vol II. Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the Fifteenth century to the Twentieth Century. New York, St. Martin's press, 1997, 303-346.
• Hovannisian Richard, G. The Republic of Armenia. Vol. 1. The First Year, 1918-1919. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1971.
o Chapter 14. “Towards the Second Year,” pp. 448-476.
• Payaslian, Simon. The History of Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
o Chapter 7. “The Republic of Armenia: The First Republic,” pp. 145-170.
• Walker, Christopher, J. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation. London: Routledge, 1990.
o Chapter 8. “Striving to Create a Republic,” pp. 256-335.
 
Assignments 2. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Analyze the importance and the real or potential consequences of the Treaties of Sevres, Alexandrapol and Moscow/Kars for Armenia and Armenians.
• Analyze the roles and input of the Armenian political parties in the independence of Armenia. What were the major issues of disagreement and how did they affect the relations between the parties?
• Discuss the challenges the government of Armenia faced in the fall of 1920 and the decisions they took. Why was the situation so critical and was there anything they could have done in the past two years to avoid facing such a critical situation?
 
Class 3. Soviet Armenia 1921-1991
- Armenia in the time of New Economic Policy reforms.
- The Stalinist “revolution from above,” the collectivization and korenizatsia.
- WWII and the post-Stalinist relaxation.
- The years of Perestroika in Soviet Armenia and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. 
 
Readings:
• Suny, Ronald, Gregor. “Soviet Armenia” in Hovannisian R. G. (ed.) The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Vol II. Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the Fifteenth century to the Twentieth Century. New York: St. Martin's press, 1997, pp. 347-387.
• Payaslian, Simon. The History of Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
o Chapter 8. “The Leninist-Stalinist Legacy: Seventy Years of Soviet Rule,” pp. 171-228.
• Bournoutian, George, A. A History of the Armenian People. Volume II: 1500 A.D. to the Present. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1994.
o Chapter. XXI. “From NEP to Perestroika: Soviet Armenia (1921-1991),” pp. 155-175.
• Walker, Christopher, J. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation. London: Routledge, 1990.
o Chapter 9. “Peace on the Plain of Ararat,” pp. 339-374.
 
Assignments 3. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Critically analyze the consequences of the Sovietization of Armenia on Armenians. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of the Soviet regime in Armenia.
• Discuss the nationalities policy in the early years of the Soviet Union and the consequences for Armenians in Armenia and diaspora.
• Describe and analyze the attitude of Armenian political parties towards Soviet Armenia. Analyze their ideologies and their stance towards Soviet Armenia. How did Armenian parties justify their positions?
 
Class 4. Conflicts, independence and post-Soviet transformations: the new Republic of Armenia
- The issue of Nagorno-Kharabagh, demonstrations of 1988, conflicts and diplomacy in 1988-1991.
- The independence of Armenia in 1991.
- The Nagorno-Karabagh war 1992-1994 and the post-war negotiations in 1994-2000.
- Democratization, post-Soviet transformations and Armenia-diaspora relations.
 
Readings:
• Libaridian, Gerard, J. The Challenge of Statehood: Armenian Political Thinking Since Independence. Cambridge, MA: Blue Crane Books, 1999.
o Chapter 1. “Political Landscape I: From Karabagh To Independence,” pp. 19-45.
o Chapter 2. “A Resignation,” pp. 47-68.
o Chapter 3. “Political Landscape II: The Karabagh Problem Revised,” pp. 69-96.
• Libaridian, Gerard, J. ed., Armenia at the Crossroads: Democracy and Nationhood in the Post-Soviet Era. Watertown, MA: Blue Crane Books, 1991.
o Documents 1, 2, 6, 8, Appendix B-2, Appendix C-1, Appendix C-2, Appendix C-3.
• Bournoutian, George, A. A History of the Armenian People. Volume II: 1500 A.D. to the Present. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1994.
o Chapter. XXIII. “On the Map: The Armenian Republic (1991-1994),” pp. 195-201.
 
Assignments 4. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Different viewpoints have been proposed about the post-Soviet Armenia. Some scholars would refer to it as the Second Republic of Armenia, while others would disagree and consider this the Third Republic of Armenia. Which viewpoint seems more convincing and why? Which Armenian circles would be most comfortable with the viewpoint you share and which would be least comfortable?
• Analyze the role of the traditional Armenian political parties in post-Soviet Armenia. What have been their major achievements and failures?
• Analyze the debate on whether or not Armenia should strive for independence in 1989-1990. What political forces were the major sides and what were their positions? How would you explain those positions?
 

PART II.
 
 
Class 5. Theories of international migration and transnationalism
- Development of the scholarly field of international migration.
- Theories of international migration.
- International migration and transnational social spaces.
- Methods of studying international migration.
 
Readings:
• Faist, Thomas. The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.  
o Chapter 1. A Review of Dominant Theories of International Migration, pp. 30-60.
o Chapter 7: The Bridging Function of Social Capital: Transnational Social Spaces, pp. 195-242.
• Faist, Thomas. “The Transnational Turn: Migration and Politics.” in  Ajaya Kumar Sahoo and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1 ,New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, pp. 227-266.
• Knight, Andy W. “Conceptualizing Transnational Community Formation: Migrants, Sojourners and Diasporas in a Globalized Era.” in  Ajaya Kumar Sahoo and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1, New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, pp. 267-297.
• Levitt, Peggy and Nina Glick Schiller. “Conceptualizing Simultaneity: A Transnational Social Field Perspective on Society,” International Migration Review, Vol. 38, Issue 3, September 2004, pp. 1002–1039.
 
Assignment 5. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Describe and analyze ‘methodological nationalism’. What seems to be problematic in this approach?
• Describe global and transnational social spaces/fields. Point to the similarities and differences. Analyze some examples of global and transnational organizations. 
• Compare and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of two or more theories of international migration.
 
Class 6. International migration, diasporas and transnationalism
- Development of diaspora studies.
- Approaches to the definition of the term ‘diaspora’.
- Diasporas and other forms of transnational communities.
- Diasporas and transnational social spaces, transnational social fields.
- Incipient diasporas.
 
Readings:
• Butler, Kim. "Defining Diaspora, Refining a Discourse." Diaspora 10:2, 2001, pp. 189-219.
• Braziel, Jana, Evans and Mannur, Anita. "Nation, Migration, Globalization: Points of Contention in Diaspora Studies." In Braziel, Jana, Evans and Mannur, Anita (eds.) Theorizing Diaspora; A reader. Blackwell Publishing, 2003, pp. 1-22.
• Cohen, Robin. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.
o Chapter 1. Four Phases of diaspora studies, pp. 1-20.
o Chapter 2. Classical notions of diaspora: Transcending the Jewish tradition, pp. 21-39Safran, Wiliam. "Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return." In Diaspora, Spring, 1991, pp. 83-99.
• James Clifford. "Diasporas." in Cultural Anthropology, 9:3, August 1994, 302-338.
• Shuval, Judith T. “Diaspora Migration: Definitional Ambiguities and a Theoretical Paradigm.” in  Ajaya Kumar Sahoo and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of  Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1, New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, pp. 28-42.
 
Assignment 6. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Discuss different approaches to the definition of the term ‘diaspora’ and propose your own definition.
• Choose one or two theories of international migration and discuss how those theories can be useful in the studies of diasporas. Analyze their strengths and limitations for diaspora studies.
• Discuss Cohen’s classification of diasporas. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of such classifications in the study of specific cases of diasporas.
 
Class 7. Conceptualization of homeland-diaspora relations
- Orientation to homeland as an important component of diasporas.
- Real and imaginary homelands.
- The concepts ‘home’ and ‘homeland’: congruities and incongruities.
- Transnational social fields and transnations.
- Possible ways of homeland-diaspora relations.
- Homeland-diaspora-hostland triangular relations as an interpretative framework.
 
Readings:
• Baumann, Martin. “Diaspora: Genealogies of Semantics and Transcultrual Comparison” in  Ajaya Kumar Sahoo and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1, New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, pp. 63-83.
• Sheffer, Gabriel. “The Emergence of New Ethno-National Diasporas.” in Sahoo, Ajaya Kumar and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1, New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, 43-62.
• Sheffer, Gabriel ‘A New Field of Study: Modern Diasporas in International Politics.” In Gabriel Shefferl (ed.) 1986. Modern Diasporas in International Politics. London & Sydney: Croom Helm, pp. 1-15.
• Safran, William. “The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and Theoretical Perspective.” in  Ajaya Kumar Sahoo and Brij Maharaj (eds). Sociology of Diaspora: A Reader. Vol. 1, New Dehli: Rawat Publications, 2007, pp. 337-362.
• Stock, Femke. “Home and Memory,” in Diasporas: Concepts, Intersections, Identities. London, New York: Zed Books, 2010, pp. 24-28.
• Tololyan, Khachig. “Nation-State and its Others: In Lieu of a Preface.” in Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1991, pp. 3-7.
• Tölölyan Khachig, Redefining Diasporas: Old Approaches, New Identities. The Armenian Diaspora in an International Context. London: Armenian Institute, 2002.
• Tölölyan, Khachig. "Elites and Institutions in the Armenian Transnation" In Diaspora, 9: 1. 2000. pp. 107- 136.
 
Assignment 7. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• What are the strengths and weaknesses of the triangular approach to the study of diasporas? 
• Critically analyze the idea of ‘transnation’. Do you think the idea of transnation is possible/impossible? Why? 
• Critically analyze the concepts of ‘home’ and ‘homeland’. How would you define an ‘imaginary homeland’ and why does it matter in diaspora studies?
 
Class 8. The institutionalization of the Armenian diaspora in the United States
- The Armenian settlement in the United States.
- Pan-Armenian organizations and their representations in the United States.
- The bases of pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet attitudes in Armenian diasporic community in the United States in the early twentieth century.
- Historical, post-genocide and post-Soviet Armenian diasporas.
 
Readings:
• Malcom. Vartan. The Armenians in America. Boston, Pilgrim Press, 1919. (full text available online via google books).
o Chapter II. ‘The Pioneers’, pp. 51-61.
o Chapter III ‘Immigration and Distribution’, pp. 62-73.
o Chapter VI ‘Religion and Education’, pp. 99-112.
• Atamian Sarkis. The Armenian Community: The Historical Development of a Social and Ideological Conflict. New York: Philosophical library, 1955.
o‘ Communism, the Nationalities Problem, and the Armenian Ideologies’, pp. 308-353.
o‘ The Armenian Community in America’, pp. 353-356.
• Mirak, Robert. “The Armenians in America” in The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin’s press, 1997, pp. 389-411.
 
Assignment 8. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
o Briefly describe the patterns of the Armenian immigration to the United States. Why did Armenians choose the United States as a destination country? What have been the major waves of Armenian immigration to the United States (pre-WWI, post-WWI, post-WWII)? 
o Some theoreticians of migration would argue that after a while a community of immigrants eventually assimilates in the host societies. Analyze the motives why Armenians were concerned of preserving their identity and what they did to achieve this goal.
 
Class 9. The Armenian Community in the United States
- The community of Armenians in the United States: solidarities, partisan affiliations, conflicts and schisms.
- The pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet orientations as the makers of partisan loyalties among Armenians.
- American-Armenian subcommunities.
- The culture of the Armenian community in the US.
 
Readings:
• Atamian Sarkis. The Armenian Community: The Historical Development of a Social and Ideological Conflict. New York: Philosophical library, 1955 
o‘ The Armenian Community in America’, pp. 356-376.
• Bakalian, Anny. Armenian-Americans: From Being to Feeling Armenian. New Branswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
o Chapter 3. ‘The Armenian –American Community’, pp. 179-250.
• Tölölyan, Khachig. "Armenian-American Literature." In Knippling Alpana Sh. (ed.) New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook of Our Multicultural Literary Heritage. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996. pp. 19-27.
 
Assignment 9. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Analyze the culture of the Armenians in the United States. Argue for or against the assumption that Armenians were able to maintain and produce a uniform culture in the United States. 
• The first half of the twentieth century was particularly difficult for the Armenian community in the US. Describe some of the problems and analyze the reasons why some tragic events happened in the early 1930s. 
• Analyze Sarkis Atamian’s chapters you have read so far. Is it possible to follow a bias in his work and where particularly this bias is the most evident? Discuss some examples from Atamian’s chapters and demonstrate the bias (if you think there is). 
 
Class 10. The Armenian institutions in the United States: church and political parties 
- The role of the Armenian transnational institutions in the United States.
- The central role of the Armenian Apostolic Church within the Armenian communities in the US.
- The Catholic and Protestant Armenian communities.
- The Armenian political parties in the conditions of diaspora.
- The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktzoutyoun) – the “government in exile; ” the Social Democrat Hunchagian party – the “communists;” and the Armenian Liberal Democratic Ramgavar party – the “Armenian bourgeoisie.”
- The Armenian General Benevolent Union.
 
Readings:
• Atamian Sarkis. The Armenian Community: The Historical Development of a Social and Ideological Conflict. New York: Philosophical library, 1955
o‘ Pro-Communist Armenian Campaign Against the Dashnaktzoutyoun’, pp. 377-423.
o‘ The Armenian Apostolic Church – Ideological Battle Ground’, pp. 424-463.
• Bakalian, Anny. Armenian-Americans: From Being to Feeling Armenian. New Branswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
o Chapter 2. ‘Church and Politics’, pp. 89-178.
• Tololyan, Khachig, ‘Exile Governments in the Armenian Polity’ in Yossi Shain (ed.), Governments-in-Exile in Contemporary World Politics, New York: Routledge, 1991, 166-185.
 
Assignments 10. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Analyze the role of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the United States. Why did it become an ‘ideological battle ground’?
• Analyze the different standpoints of the ‘pro-Soviet’ and the ‘anti-Soviet’ groupings and explain why, for example, the Ramgavars, while being a liberal-democratic party, would become ‘pro-Soviet’ rather than joining the ‘anti-Soviet’ camp.
• Analyze the legitimacy of the claim ‘government in exile’ by the ARF. 
 
Class 11. Armenian diasporic identity in the United States
- Factors shaping the Armenian identity in the diaspora.
- Language and religion as markers of Armenian identity.
- Political affiliations and political identities of Armenians in the United States.
- In-groups and out-groups.
- Traditional vs symbolic identities.
- The assimilated, the ‘true ethnics’ and the ‘diasporans’ in the US.

Readings: 
• Atamian Sarkis. The Armenian Community: The Historical Development of a Social and Ideological Conflict. New York: Philosophical library, 1955
o‘ Socio-psychological Analysis of Armenian Identities’, pp. 257-307.
• Bakalian, Anny. Armenian-Americans: From Being to Feeling Armenian. New Branswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
o Chapter 4. ‘The debate over language’, pp. 251-318.
o Chapter 5. ‘Sources of Identity’, pp. 319-392.
• Tölölyan, Khachig. "Armenian-American Literature." In Knippling Alpana Sh. (ed.) New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook of Our Multicultural Literary Heritage. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996. pp. 19-42.
 
Assignment 11. Please write a short response paper on one the following topics/questions (up to 5 pages):
• Critically analyze the assumption that all Armenians will eventually develop symbolic identities and traditional Armenian identities will be lost in the United States.
• Analyze the types of Armenians in the United States and think of their applicability in everyday life. How is it possible to differentiate the ‘true ethnics’ from ‘fully assimilated’ Armenians or the ‘true ethnics’ from ‘diasporans’ in concrete cases? What would be the most visible indicators? 
• Analyze your understanding of what is to be an Armenian in the US. Analyze the role of language, religion and the partisan affiliations.
• Many diasporic activists struggle for the preservation of Armenian identity in the United States and elsewhere in the diaspora. Analyze the importance of the preservation of Armenian identity in the United States. Discuss the ways in which identity can be preserved and transmitted from generation to generation in the diaspora.
 
Class 12. Closing exam 
Choose any of the assignment questions above, which you did not address in your previous papers, and write an analytical paper (13-15 pages). 
Դուք այստեղ եք: Ուսումնական ծրագրեր Հայագիտություն Armenia and Diaspora in the 20th century